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This blog is for individuals and private organizations who want to read the FDRE Constitution as well as the interpretations of the Constitution as well as various laws of our country, various proclamations, government-approved directives, teachings and publications. Laws and the Constitution of our country. It is a website where we volunteer to help the public learn about draft laws and interpretations of the constitution.

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government-approved directives, teachings and publications. Laws and the Constitution of our country. It is a website where we volunteer to help the public learn about draft laws and interpretations of the constitution.

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CONSTITUTION LAW

The constitution is clear, not in name. Its existence is real, not imaginary. If it cannot be seen, touched, grasped, then no one. The constitution is not the product of the government. Instead, the basis of government before the government is the constitution. The constitution of a country is the result of the free will of the people who establish the government.


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  • የብልፅግና ዉዥንብር”
  • ባህርያትና የስልጣን ምንጭ
    ⚖️ ባህርያትና የስልጣን ምንጭ    አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ማለት ከህግ አውጭው በተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን ገደብ ውስጥ በስራ አስፈፃሚውና የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች የሚወጣ የበታች ህግ (subordinate legislation) ነው፡፡ በውክልና ህግ ማውጣት የአስተዳደር ህግ አይነተኛ መገለጫ ነው፡፡ የስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን ከጊዜ ወደ ጊዜ እያደገ መምጣት የነፃ ገበያ ክስተትን ተከትሎ የመጣው ዘመናው የማህበራዊ ደህንነት መንግስት (welfare state) ካስመዘገባቸው እድገቶች መካከል በቀዳሚነት ይጠቀሳል፡፡ በውክልና ህግ ለማውጣት ዋናው የስልጣን ምንጭ ህግ አውጭው እንደመሆኑ የተወካዮች ም/ቤት በማያወላውልና ግልጽ በሆነ መልኩ ስልጣኑን በከፊል ቆርሶ ለሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ወይም ለአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ካልሰጠ እነዚህ አካላት ከህገ መንግስት የመነጨ የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣን የላቸውም፡፡ የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ሆነ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ደንብና መመሪያ እንዲያወጡ በቀጥታ ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ ስልጣን አይሰጣቸውም፡፡ በፌደራል ደረጃ ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን የተወካዮች ም/ቤት ሲሆን በክልል ደረጃ ደግሞ የክልሉ ምክር ቤት ነው፡፡ ከዚህ ውጭ ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን የተሰጠው አካል በህገ-መንግስቱ ላይ የለም፡፡ የውክልና ስልጣን በሌለበት ሁኔታ የሚወጣ ማንኛውም ደንብ ሆነ መመሪያ ከስልጣን በላይ እንደመሆኑ የህጋዊነት መስፈርትን አያሟላም፡፡ በእርግጥ የአስቸኳይ ጊዜ አዋጅ በፓርላማው ፀድቆ ከታወጀ የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ውስን ለሆነ ጊዜ ሲቪል እና ፖለቲካዊ መብቶችን ደንብ በማውጣት ሊገድብ ይችላል፡፡ ከዚህ ውጭ የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት በቀጥታ ደንብ ለማውጣት የሚችልበት ህገ መንግስታዊ ስልጣን የለውም፡፡ የስልጣኑ ምንጩ የተወካዮች ም/ቤት ብቻ ነው ከተባለ ይህ አካል ስልጣኑን በከፊል ቆርሶ በውክልና ማስተላለፍ ይችላል? የሚለውን ጥያቄ መመርመሩ ተገቢ ሆናል፡፡ በኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት ላይ ይህን የሚፈቅድለት ግልጽ ድንጋጌ የለም፡፡ ብዙዎች የመስኩ ምሁራን እንደሚስማሙበት ግን ህግ አውጭው ስልጣኑን በከፊል በውክልና ለማስተላለፍ ከህግ አውጭነቱ የሚመነጭ ስልጣን (inherent power) አለው፡፡ እንዲያም ሆኖ ያለገደብ ከህዝብ የተሰጠውን ስልጣን በውክልና ስም ሊያስተላልፍ አይችልም፡፡ በመሰረቱ በውክልና ስልጣን የሚወጣ ህግ ከመንግስት አስተዳደር እየተለጠጠ መምጣት ጋር ተያያዥ የሆኑ አስገዳጅ ሁኔታዎች ያመጡት ክስተት ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም እንደ ልዩ ሁኔታ እንጂ በመርህ ደረጃ ተቀባይነት የለውም፡፡ ህግ አውጭው ምንም እንኳን በከፊል ስልጣኑን ማስተላለፍ ቢኖርበትም የፖሊሲ ጥያቄዎችን የሚነኩ መሰረታዊ ጉዳዮች በደንብ ወይም በመመሪያ እንዲወሰኑ ውክልና መስጠት የለበትም፡፡ የተፈጻሚነቱ ወሰኑ በህግ አውጪው በሚወጣው ህግ ላይ የሚታዩ ቀዳዳዎችን ለመድፈን ብሎም የፖሊሲ ጥያቄዎችን በማይነኩ ዝርዝርና ጥቃቅን ቴክኒካል ጉዳዮች መገደብ አለበት፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር አፈጻጸሙ በጠባቡ ሊሆን ይገባዋል፡፡ አስፈላጊነት ብቁና ውጤታማ አስተዳደር እንዲሰፍን የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች በህግ የተሰጣቸውን ስልጣን፣ ተግባርና ግዴታ በተጨባጭ ማሳካት ይጠበቅባቸዋል፡፡ ስኬት እንዲኖር ደግሞ የማስፈፀም ስልጣን ብቻውን በቂ አይሆንም፡፡ ጠቅለል ያለ ይዘት ያላቸው በፓርላማ የሚወጡ ህጐች የፖሊሲ አቅጣጫዎችን ከመጠቆም ባለፈ ቴክኒካልና ዝርዝር ጉዳዮችን ስለማይዳስሱ በየጊዜው ለሚነሱ ችግሮች ወቅታዊና ውጤታማ ምላሽ ለመስጠት ይሳናቸዋል፡፡ ስለሆነም አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ የማውጣት ስልጣን አስፈላጊነት ከሁለት አቅጣጫዎች ማለትም ከአስተዳደር ስራ ውጤታማነት እና ከህግ አውጭው ውስንነት አንፃር ሊቃኝ ይችላል፡፡Continue reading “ባህርያትና የስልጣን ምንጭ”
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